عنوان مقاله [English]
In the recent decades, tourism industry has considered as the most important industry and has grown dramatically therefore, the share of international tourism in the global economic activities are continuously increasing. Today, the tourism industry is too important in the economic and social development of a country thus economists call it invisible exports. Ecotourism is a type of tourism in which tourists travel to visit and enjoy the world's undisturbed natural areas and watch plants, birds, fish, and other animals. The objectives of ecotourism are educating and making the Eco tourists ready to protect and respect ecosystems and natural resources and to become familiar with diverse cultures, beliefs and human rights. Also ecotourism plays a major role in the economic and political development of local communities. According to the importance of ecotourism, this study presents a mathematical model for ecotourism supply chain. The proposed model is single-objective one which maximizing the chain’s profit. Due to the demand uncertainty, the fuzzy method is used to deal with uncertainty. An applicable numerical example was also presented and the mathematical model was solved by Lingo software and the results were examined.
- Lambert, D.M. and M.C. Cooper, Issues in supply chain management. Industrial marketing management, 2000. 29(1): p. 65-83.
- Ceballos-Lascurain, H., Tourism, ecotourism, and protected areas: The state of nature-based tourism around the world and guidelines for its development. 1996: Iucn.
- Ahmadimanesh, F., M.M. Paydar, and E. Asadi-Gangraj, Designing a mathematical model for dental tourism supply chain. Tourism Management, 2019. 75: p. 404-417.
- Estêvão, R.S., et al., A socio-technical approach to the assessment of sustainable tourism: Adding value with a comprehensive process-oriented framework. Journal of Cleaner Production, 2019. 236: p. 117487.
- Silva, E.S., et al., Forecasting tourism demand with denoised neural networks. Annals of Tourism Research, 2019. 74: p. 134-154.
- Tseng, M.-L., et al., Ecotourism development in Thailand: community participation leads to the value of attractions using linguistic preferences. Journal of Cleaner Production, 2019.
- Salemi, M., et al., Conceptual framework for evaluation of ecotourism carrying capacity for sustainable development of Karkheh protected area, Iran. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology, 2019. 26(4): p. 354-366.
- Rivera, J.P.R. and E.L.M. Gutierrez, A framework toward sustainable ecotourism value chain in the Philippines. Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality & Tourism, 2019. 20(2): p. 123-142.
- Ocampo, L., et al., Sustainable ecotourism indicators with fuzzy Delphi method–A Philippine perspective. Ecological indicators, 2018. 93: p. 874-888.
- Zadeh, L.A., Fuzzy sets, information and control. vol, 1965. 8: p. 338-353.
- Zimmermann, H.-J., Description and optimization of fuzzy systems. International Journal of General System, 1975. 2(1): p. 209-215.
- Lai, Y.-J. and C.-L. Hwang, Fuzzy multiple objecyive decision making-methods and applicaion,Springer-Verlag,Germany.
- Lai, Y.-J. and C.-L. Hwang, A new approach to some possibilistic linear programming problems. Fuzzy sets and systems, 1992. 49(2): p. 121-133.
- Liang, T.-F., Distribution planning decisions using interactive fuzzy multi-objective linear programming. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 2006. 157(10): p. 1303-1316.
- Torabi, S.A. and E. Hassini, An interactive possibilistic programming approach for multiple objective supply chain master planning. Fuzzy sets and systems, 2008. 159(2): p. 193-214.
- Noori-Darvish, S., I. Mahdavi, and N. Mahdavi-Amiri, A bi-objective possibilistic programming model for open shop scheduling problems with sequence-dependent setup times, fuzzy processing times, and fuzzy due dates. Applied Soft Computing, 2012. 12(4): p. 1399-1416.